The Truth about Pattern Theology

Pattern theology refers to the idea to follow biblical patterns for life and church. Pattern theology includes following specific examples that define God’s instructions. Patterns are the order, designs, models, and examples found in the Bible. This pattern theology has been rejected by many church leaders, because it is exclusive of differing religious practices among the various churches. If believers accepted the idea of the following the examples in the Bible of how Christians followed the commands many teachings and practices would change. Baptism would only be immersion, churches would be governed by elderships, and church assemblies would gather for the Lord’s Supper and partake at every meeting. A study of following Bible patterns is extremely vital to those not familiar with Jesus’ instructions on this subject. Let’s clear up the confusion regarding pattern theology and following patterns.

Christ is the Christian example. Jesus’ example of humility is incomparable. Jesus set the example of being a servant by washing His disciples’ feet. Jesus said in John 13:15, “For I have given you a pattern [example], that you should do as I have done to you.” Jesus set the example, the model, the pattern to be imitated. Christ’s Spirit spoke through Peter saying in 1 Peter 2:21, “For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example [pattern], that you should follow His steps“. The idea of following in one’s steps is to follow one’s example, and in this case, Christians follow the imprinted pattern of Jesus’ steps. Christ being the pattern is the basis of pattern theology.

Without the pattern examples of Jesus Christ, then the Bible would be lists of commands with some advice and poetry dispersed across accounts of history. The Bible is not a list of commands as many anti-patternists would leave it. The New Testament is a text containing Christ’s words whether from His mouth or from His Spirit through His Apostles and prophets (John 6:63, 16:12-13). By this, the New Testament and the whole of the Bible is a book of virtues among other things, and these virtues are defined by commands and examples, and these commands are also defined by example. Clearly, there is a form of pattern theology in the Bible.

Those who follow a pattern or example are imitators. The Greek for imitate is mimetes, and according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, to imitate is “to follow as a pattern, model, or example”. Christians are to be imitators. This means that Christians mimic the form, the model, and the design given by Christ.  Third John 11 says, “Beloved, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good. He who does good is of God, but he who does evil has not seen God.” Christians are commanded to imitate the good behavior of others. Hebrews 6:12, “imitate those who through faith and patience inherit the promises.” Elders are commanded to be examples to the flock (1 Peter 5:3). All Christians are also to be examples for others (1 Pet. 2:12). Paul praised the Thessalonian Christians for being examples to all of Greece (1 Thess. 1:7). Now, are we going to be perfect imitators? No. Our salvation does not rest on perfection, but rather that we walk in the light and therefore diligently striving to imitate Jesus (1 John 1:7). As is seen throughout the New Testament, imitating and walking are one and the same.

Yet, the question brought to mind in considering pattern theology is “What must Christians imitate?” Christians imitate character and virtue. Every New Testament command has a virtuous principle behind it. Therefore, we define virtues, which are principles, by God’s commands and examples defining these commands. Defining examples need no specific citations, because the New Testament is filled with these. Yet, observe the instruction of Christ’s Spirit regarding the virtue of humility. Paul referred to Jesus coming as a lowly servant in Philippians 2. Philippians 2:5 says, “Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus”. Jesus gave up His position in heaven to come here as a servant and His example defined humility. His pattern is binding to the instruction to be lowly and to esteem others higher than ourselves (Phil. 2:3-4).

The instructions of the New Testament are imbedded within specific situations as give examples and application to Christ’s commands. This is common in life. When an employer gives his employees work and shows them our to do what he has instructed, then those workers are bound to his example as much as it is a good and complete example. Throughout life, good and bad examples are set for us. Children define the roles of father, mother, husband, and wife by their parents’ example. In like manner, the New Testament sets positive examples, which define how to obey God. Christians learn from the examples of the New Testament about what is means to be a Christian.

The Bible is not just Sunday morning stories, but rather defining narratives of faithful and righteous living. These biblical accounts define Christ, our faith, and our obedience. When it comes to pattern theology, many teach “church pattern” and the others say “no pattern”. “No pattern” is wrong and only “church pattern” is incomplete when not considering patterns for Christian living.

The New Testament establishes a pattern of Christian living. Christ’s Spirit said in Ephesians 5:1-2,

“Therefore be imitators of God as dear children. And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma.”

Ephesians 5:3-7 defines even more in how one should be an imitator of God and walking in love. Therefore, Christians imitate by putting off the sins of sexual immorality and filthy speaking. This virtuous living must still be carried into our homes, workplaces, and stores even though the text does not explicitly command this in the context. The Apostle Paul has more to say about following the pattern of Christian living. Paul said in Philippians 3:17, “Brethren, join in following my example, and note those who so walk, as you have us for a pattern.” The pattern is set not just by Paul but in all who walk. Examples and patterns a synonymous and interchangeable being translated from the same Greek words tupos, hupotuposis, and hupodeigma. How can we know this pattern by the examples of the Apostles and others throughout the New Testament? We read of their lives in light of their obedience to God’s commands. Christ’s Spirit said through Paul in Philippians 4:9, “The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you.” By seeing, one can only receive an example, a defining of pattern of life.

Noting the examples of these who imitate Christian living, these also practice the pattern of doctrine, worship, and government of the Church that Christ built. In the New Testament, Christians imitate the Apostles’ doctrines and traditions (Acts 2:41-47). The Apostle also instructed in 1 Corinthians 11:1-2,

Imitate me, just as I also imitate Christ. Now I praise you, brethren, that you remember me in all things and keep the traditions just as I delivered them to you.

Paul commanded imitation by keeping Apostolic traditions delivering the Lord’s Supper in 1 Corinthians 11. Notice how Christ’s example in instituting the Lord’s Supper defined what how we observe the memorial. In Paul’s instruction of the Lord’s Supper, he used Jesus’ example and pattern to command the memorial of the Lord’s Supper. What gives Paul’s example authority? If Paul were not an example of Christ, then his example would have no authority (1 Cor. 11:1-2). Paul also said in 1 Corinthians 4:16-17,

Therefore I urge you, imitate me. For this reason I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithful son in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways in Christ, as I teach everywhere in every church.”

The New Testament scriptures give Christians the examples they need to obey Christ’s commands. For example, there is no command that one must use water for baptism in Jesus’ name (Acts 2:38). Yet, there is a pattern and there are examples, which clearly define baptism in Jesus name to consist of water (Acts 10:47-48). Acts 8:36-38 and 10:47-48 is a binding example to the commands to be baptized for the releasing of sins.

The Scriptures establish a pattern in words. Christ’s Spirit spoke in 2 Timothy 1:13 saying, “Hold fast the pattern of sound words which you have heard from me, in faith and love which are in Christ Jesus.” For which, Timothy is instructed to keep those things committed to him, which certainly included instructions regarding church government in 1 Timothy 3. In fact, no Apostolic teaching or practice can be excluded from “the pattern of sound words”. These sound words are essential, so that salvation depends on following the pattern. Romans 6:17-18 says,

“But God be thanked that though you were slaves of sin, yet you obeyed from the heart that form [pattern] of doctrine to which you were delivered. And having been set free from sin, you became slaves of righteousness.”

The word “form” is the Greek word tupos being a pattern and an example.  What form of doctrine is this? This is none other than the death to sin, burial by baptism, and resurrection unto newness of life in Romans 6:4-6. When we consider Christ’s pattern of words regarding baptism, church government, marriage, church music, and the Lord’s Supper, do we consider His words to be perfect and complete? Is there a greater pattern or any higher pattern of words? Should we even think to alter and change that pattern of words? Can we find a better example in Christ and His pattern shown through the lives of His followers in the Scriptures? Pattern theology has a point. There is a pattern that we must follow and it is not the pattern of the world or the inventions of men and denominations. There are no greater examples than those found in the scriptures.

In conclusion, our pattern is Christ, His life, and His words. Pattern theology must consist of our lives imitating Christ along with imitating His church that He built and bought with His blood.

Pattern Theology

About Scott J Shifferd

Minister, church of Christ in Jacksonville, FL. Husband and father of four. Email: ScottJon82[at]
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78 Responses to The Truth about Pattern Theology

  1. Phil says:

    Scott, you have no problem contacting other churches and logging onto other websites and telling everyone how they are wrong. I’ve seen your name all over the web at other sites. You impose your will on them as if you have the truth and they don’t. Yet when someone comes to your site to have a discussion you start bashing them. I will be glad to inform the sites where I see your name and give them evidence of your egotistic attitude that you take everywhere you go. You are condescending and self-righteous. And you are keeping fledgling Christians from experiencing the spiritual aspects of Christianity because you refuse to see the part of the bible that refers to this higher relationship with Truth that mature Christians were meant to live by.

    You have not heard the last from me. You can ban me from your site but I will expose you for the way you arrogantly approach others and attempt to correct them with your false doctrine of works, and the damage you do to the power of Grace. I spent 35 years in the coC and have seen those like you who are obsessed with correcting others of their wrongness. I was one of them until I finally woke up. I lost my family because I saw things differently than them, which is typical in the coC. Everyone who disagrees gets ostracized. So be it. I’d rather be w/o my family than to have to put up with false teaching that does nothing more than make the believer bigger in their own eyes. Arrogance runs rampant in the coC.

    I have invited you to contact me by email at but you have not. We can discuss this matter privately, or if you prefer to do it publicly then so be it. You will deal with me again, I promise. I am as determined to expose you as you are determined to correct others.

    It’s your choice.


  2. Phil says:

    Apparently you have not understood that one must die before he is reborn. When you die it is Christ living in you, not you following a pattern. You are dead! It is Christ who is now alive in you. You become the dwelling place that Christ live by His Spirit. How can you (Scott) follow a pattern if your dead to the flesh? The flesh follows patterns, laws, rules and commands. The Spirit uses you to carry out His will, not you doing it for Him. Can you not grasp this NT principle?


  3. Phil says:

    When Christ lives in you you are the one being led by the Spirit, who lives in you, not the mechanical practice of following a pattern. The difference is subtle, but very important. As a Christian why don’t you know that? Have you not been transformed of mind? I wonder!


  4. Phil says:

    There is nothing wrong with following a pattern until the pattern becomes the main objective of your quest.


    • What about Christ’s pattern?


      • Phil says:

        What about it? I don’t live by a pattern. When God’s Spirit comes alive in you then He becomes your guide, not a pattern. Read Romans 8. Nothing in Romans 8 infers a pattern. Pre -conversion has a place for patterns, rules, regs, laws, commands, etc. But not post-conversion. You don’t seem to make a distinction between pre-conversion and post-conversion. Maybe you don’t understand it. Or maybe you don’t believe in it. The Galatians certainly had a problem with it, which is why Paul was frustrated with them.
        Please consider these passages:

        Galatians 3:3
        3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?

        Romans 7:6
        But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.

        The pattern you are promoting is more about law than the Spirit. When following a pattern you are literally following written instructions, which is totally that of a works theology.


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