What Kind of Wine Did Jesus Drink?

Is this true that Jesus drank alcoholic wine as the lyrics, “Cause I heard Jesus, He drank wine”? Some Christians question this. What kind of wine did Jesus drink? Did Jesus drink intoxicating amounts of wine?

The Definition of Biblical Wine

Many have assumed that the word “wine” in the Bible is always alcoholic or equivalent to modern wine. The Bible affirms that “wine” could mean alcoholic wine of varying amounts or non-alcoholic grape juice (1 Tim 3:8; Titus 2:3).

Remember the Bible was originally written in the languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, so the meaning and nuances of words are slightly or very different from the corresponding English word. Biblical “wine” is grape juice that may or may not have fermented. Both in Hebrew and Greek, the words translated “wine” can refer to non-alcoholic juice or fermented wine. The Hebrew word is yayin and the Greek is oinos (LXX; MT).

There are a number of examples of unfermented “wine.” Note the passages and references to non-alcoholic wine throughout the Bible:

  • “Wine” is the blood of the grape (Gen 49:11–12, Heb. yayin, Gr. oinos LXX; Deut 32:14, Heb. chemer; Gr. oinos LXX).
  • The vineyard is the place of “red wine” (Isa 27:2, Heb. chemer).
  • “Wine” refers to the grape juice from the grapes of the field (Deut 11:14; 2 Chr 31:5, Heb. tirosh; Gr. oinos LXX; Jer 40:10, 12, Heb. yayin; Gr. oinos LXX).
  • Scripture describes “wine” that is in the grape (Isa 65:8, Heb. tirosh).
  • The grape juice of the wine-press is “wine” (Prov 3:10, Heb. tirosh; Gr. oinos LXX; Isa 16:10; Jer 48:33, Heb. yayin; Gr. oinos LXX).

These references clearly show that the word “wine” can simply refer to grape juice in the Bible whether in Hebrew or Greek.

In reading the Old Testament, many are surprised that the Bible versions represent six different Hebrew words “wine” for which two words exclude alcohol. These are asis means “sweet grape juice” or “new grape juice,” and another word hemer simply means “grape juice.” Both words have no reference to alcohol, and yet translators interpret these words as “wine” to avoid interpreting the contexts with its nuances and ambiguity. Therefore, one must remain careful not to assume that the word “wine” means alcoholic wine.

With an honest heart, may God’s grace encourage all believers to reconsider biblical wine. This article is not to engage in the debate over the drinking of alcohol. With the previous knowledge, this writer finds that a study of the Scriptures reveals there is not one positive statement about intoxicating wine or any such drink throughout the Bible. There are positive words about non-alcoholic “wine” that many people presume to encourage the use of intoxicating wine. However, these positive passages of grape juice do not necessitate a reference to alcohol in any way (Gen 14:18; Num 15:5–10; Deut 14:26; Psa 104:15; Isa 55:1; Amos 9:14; John 2:1–11; 1 Tim 5:23). References to the translations of “strong drink” or “liquor” can also refer to today’s cider according to Danker and Gingrich’s Greek lexicon for sikera, σικερα (cf. Deut 14:26; Luke 1:15; Wycliffe’s Bible).

There are many today professing a faith in Jesus who look to Jesus’s drinking of wine to support their excessive drinking. By God’s grace, God has saved Christians from excessive drinking (1 Pet 4:3). Therefore, may every Christian remain very careful. Many are delivering destructive reasons to their brothers and sisters in Christ who struggle with alcohol so that they justify giving into excessive drinking. The consequences may be disastrous and extensive even to death. The Christian approach to alcohol is not to judge or condemn the person who drinks, but the Christian must follow the biblical examples and warn those who do drink, linger, and look at the cup (Prov 23:29–35; Rom 14:17–22).

Bible Wine and Today’s Wine

In the Bible, alcoholic wine is not like wine today. The sugar of grape juice can only ferment to 3 or 4% alcohol with wild yeast. For grape juice to exceed 4% alcohol, then the winemaker must add yeast. The yeast added to ancient wines produced between 4–11% alcohol. Alcohol kills these yeast cells and prevents levels of alcohol from exceeding ~10%. Today, wines average 12–20% alcohol due to modern fermentation by adding sulfur dioxide and Saccharomyces (a cultured GMO yeast) to a late harvest of ripened grapes with higher fructose (Winemaker Magazine, Wines & VinesUC DavisInternational Biblical Encyclopedia, “Alcohol in the Church,” Bible Wine). Today’s wine is not like biblical wine in regards to alcoholic content. Due to the later invention of distilling, strong drinks like liquor exceed 20% alcohol for which today’s wine is coming close to matching.

When reading the word “wine” in the Bible, the word may simply refer to grape juice or intoxicating wine not exceeding ~10% alcohol. However, biblical wine is certainly not like wine today. Because of the use of the word “wine” in English Bibles, many presume that Jesus drank alcoholic wine. Again, the Greek word oinos can refer to grape juice that is either alcoholic or nonalcoholic wine throughout the Bible. The context reveals whether wine is alcoholic or not. Jesus did not drink modern wine. The methods for fermenting highly-alcoholic wine had not yet been invented.

Jesus’s opponents accused Him of being a “wine-drinker” from the Greek oinopoteis, because He came freely eating and also drinking grape juice unlike John the Baptist who restricted his eating and drinking (Matt 11:18–19; Luke 7:33–34). These antagonists appear to accuse Jesus of drinking alcohol. However, when the reader considers the wedding that Jesus attended in Cana and Jesus’s institution of the Lord’s Supper, then His drinking of wine is not what many think.

Water to Wine

What about Jesus turning water to wine? Many are mistaken to think that Jesus turned water into intoxicating wine at the wedding in Cana, a small town in Galilee (John 2). One must assume this “wine,” oinos, was alcoholic. These scriptures infer that the wedding guests “have well drunk” a large amount of oinos, which the Greek word translated “well drunk” is methuo meaning literally to fill or make full, and many times the word means “drunk” depending on the context. Translators render methuo as “drunk” referring to drunkenness by drinking intoxicating wine or filling oneself with wine (Gingrich and Danker’s lexicon).

Which is more likely: that Jesus created intoxicating wine for those who were drunk or that He made fresh “new wine” for those who had filled themselves with the previous nonalcoholic wine? If one interprets this passage as Jesus made alcoholic wine, then Jesus created more intoxicating wine for those who were already drunk. If one perceives that the wedding guests were simply full of nonalcoholic wine, then Jesus made “new wine” with little or no alcohol. The reference to the guests becoming full also implies that the wedding feast was relatively short especially if one takes this word in John 2:10 to mean that the guests were “drunk.”

Furthermore, one may consider that Jesus provided them with “new wine” as though received from the grape-press. The making of new wine magnifies Jesus’s sign, because this was just before the Passover and the first harvest of grapes. The reference to Jesus’s wine as “good wine” indicates fresh grape juice before the first harvest. Therefore, Jesus’s producing of fresh grape juice would have been an evident miraculous wonder of God. This was late in the year in winter and just before Passover when old wine remained (John 2:13). Jesus providing more late and intoxicating wine would not have been an apparent miraculous sign. These facts indicate that Jesus most likely did not make intoxicating wine at the wedding feast in Cana.

The master of the feast depicted the situation that the guests had filled themselves with wine from the meaning of “filled” of the Greek word methuo in John 2:9–10. When one reads the filling of wine made the guests full, then this drinking of the wedding feast occurred in a short amount of time — a matter of hours. However, wedding feasts may last a day and sometimes more (Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah). By supposing intoxicating wine, one must suppose an immediate drinking of the wine that Jesus made. Considering this scenario, Jesus would have made more intoxicating wine amounting to between 120 to 180 gallons of “the good wine.” If there were three hundred people there to drink another 150 gallons, these would have already each had much alcoholic wine considering that “the guests have well drunk.” Jesus would have given each guest an additional 64 ounces of alcoholic wine. The average person would have drunk another 4–6 drinks of alcoholic wine. Jesus would have poisoned a wedding party of three hundred attendants from the toxin of ethyl alcohol, and the guests would had been vomiting and passing out.

Now, consider a wedding party of a thousand guests. If one thousand people drank one hundred and fifty gallons of fermented wine that Jesus supposedly made, then each person would have consumed an average amount of wine consumed at ~19 ounces of wine while already having “well drunk” from the Greek methuo in John 2:10. Presuming that this wine contained 10% alcohol because the scenario includes fermented wine, Jesus would have aided a thousand people in binge drinking having intoxicated the guests with three additional drinks who were already intoxicated — “have well drunk.” For each guest to have had simply two more drinks, then the wedding would have had at least 2,400 attendees. Despite the number in attendance, Jesus would have presumably contributed a considerable amount of alcohol to those who were already drunk. The scenario of Jesus producing alcoholic wine appears improbable and uncharacteristic of refraining from drunkenness.

If Jesus did make a great amount of fermented wine, He would had aided the sin of drunkenness, excessive drinking, and participated in a drinking party, which are all condemned by His Spirit in the Christian Scriptures (1 Pet 4:3). To assume that Jesus made intoxicating wine is to assume that after everyone had drunk all the other intoxicating wine, then Jesus made more intoxicating wine for all of these who were already drunk. For those proposing that Jesus made highly intoxicating wine like today’s wine, 16–24 oz. of today’s wine would intoxicate anyone at an alcoholic level of 12–15% according to the CDC. Today’s intoxicating wine or first century fermented wine would have been an absurdity at this wedding.

Wine and the Lord’s Supper

Did Jesus use alcoholic wine in the Lord’s Supper? Many have justified excessive drinking and drunkenness by how many churches have made alcoholic wine a part of the “Eucharist,” the Lord’s Supper. Did Jesus use highly alcoholic wine when He instituted the Lord’s Supper? First, the Scriptures never use the word “wine” in any of the four accounts of Christ instituting the Lord’s Supper. Jesus mentioned the specific content of the cup containing “the fruit of the grapevine.” Alcoholic wine has no reference in Scripture to the Lord’s Supper. The Greek word for “wine” is never used in Scripture to describe any part of the Lord’s Supper. Many have again presumed that Jesus used alcoholic wine in the Lord’s Supper for their own purposes of justifying their use of wine according to Jesus’s use.

Furthermore, Jesus used unleavened bread because it was the time of the Passover, which is the Feast of Unleavened Bread. They threw out all leaven by God’s command including the leavened bread. Did throwing out the yeast mean that Israel must throw out the yeast, the leavened bread, but leave the grape juice fermented by yeast? The reader should consider the removing of yeast in Exodus 13:6–7.

When Jesus used “fruit of the grapevine” in the Lord’s Supper, the most probable fermentation would be between 0–4% from wild yeast after a week of exposure. If one assumed this was alcoholic wine, then the highest level of alcohol could reach 4%. When Jesus used “the fruit of the grapevine,” then the reader may find that this cup would have been nonalcoholic or never exceeded 4% alcohol. The intent of the cup of the Lord was not to intoxicate.

What about those who got drunk over the Lord’s Supper? This is another misconception from the use of the Greek word methuo, which can mean drunk or filled as previously noted. Remember that this is word from the Wedding Feast recorded in John 2. First Corinthians 11:21–22 depicts, “Therefore when you come together in one place, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper. For in eating, each one takes his own supper ahead of others; and one is hungry and another is drunk [methuo]” (ESV). Some ate the Lord’s Supper as a meal so that they were filled and those who drank were also filled. If one assumes that these Christians became drunk in the assembly using the grape juice for the Lord’s Supper, then they must also presume that those drinking brought enough intoxicating wine to get drunk and yet intended to use such for the Lord’s Supper. This implies that some of these Christians brought alcoholic wine for others, and they decided to simply drink that wine in assembly rather than wait for others. However, what grape juice or wine was more probable and characteristic that Lord instituted? First Corinthians 11 is not a conclusive source to support the assertion that the Lord’s Supper consisted of intoxicating wine.

Warnings about Wine

As the Scriptures warn against wine, Christians can and must warn against the use of alcohol. Solomon warned by the wisdom of God,

Do not look on the wine when it is red, When it sparkles in the cup, When it swirls around smoothly; At the last it bites like a serpent, And stings like a viper. Your eyes will see strange things, And your heart will utter perverse things. (Prov 23:31–33)

Therefore, “Wine is a mocker, Strong drink is a brawler, And whoever is led astray by it is not wise” (Prov 20:1). 

Christian must warn against drunkenness. The Greek word translated “drunkenness” literally means “filling oneself” in Scripture (Eph 5:18–19; cf. Rom 13:13). Christ’s Spirit in Galatians 5:19–21 teaches that such “drunkenness” is a “work of the flesh” and “those who are doing such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.” Galatians 5 also condemned “wild parties” or “revelries” where any of the list of sins like drunkenness would constitute a party as sinful and carnal. Christ also reveals in 1 Corinthians 6:10 that drunkards “will not inherit the kingdom of God.” Drunkenness and filling one’s body with intoxicants is sin.

Filling oneself with alcohol is evil and compromises the sobriety of the Christian conscience — one’s heart (cf. Rom 2:14–15; 1 John 3:19–21). Christ’s words and those of His Apostles and prophets urge all to reconsider, and so Christians should do likewise and warn others of drunkenness. Peter warned, “For the time that is past suffices for doing what the Nations want to do, living in sensuality, passions, drunkenness [lit. excessive drinking], orgies, drinking parties [lit. drinkings], and lawless idolatry” (1 Pet 4:3). The word for “drunkenness” here is not the usually word for drunkenness in Greek, but this word is oinophlugia made of two words oinos meaning “wine” and phlugia is “to do something in excess.” Excessive drinking is a sin. Do not overlook the reference to drinking parties translated from the Greek word potos, which literally denotes occasions that people purpose for drinking.

Followers of Christ must remain sober and make no provision to become drunk on any level (1 Thess 5:8). Christians cannot participate in events that meet and center around drinking (1 Pet 4:3). Christ had no part with drunkenness and drinking parties, so His followers must not. According to Romans 14, Christians should not condemn their brother over a drink; although, every Christian has the scriptural example and the foresight to warn against its use and against looking at the cup (Prov 23:29–35; Rom 14:17–22).

There is not one positive statement about alcohol in the Bible. The New Testament teaches that Christians are not to walk in drunkenness filling themselves with alcohol. The misuse of the word “wine” has become the means for many to presume that God is permissive of the excessive drinking of alcohol to some level of intoxication. By the word “wine,” many try to justify the sins of excessive drinking.

Conclusion

The wine that Jesus drank was not intoxicating. Alcoholic wine is not characteristic of Jesus or any godly behavior in the Bible. Jesus neither encouraged drunkenness nor is He recorded to have used intoxicating wine. Anyone using alcohol based upon Jesus should reconsider their position. If anyone uses Jesus to justify excessive drinking, drunkenness, and drinking events, then let that person hear this plea to rethink these views according to the words and life of Christ. The reality is that the Bible neither promotes nor supports the drinking of intoxicants. God’s grace compels Christians to no longer continue any excessive drinking of alcohol because they have been forgiven.

Let us walk properly as in the daytime, not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and sensuality, not in quarreling and jealousy. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires. (Rom 13:13–14)


  1. Jeff Chorniak. “Wild Yeast: The Pros and Cons of Spontaneous Fermentation.” Winemakers Magazine. 2005. <http://winemakermag.com/758-wild-yeast-the-pros-and-cons-of-spontaneous-fermentation>.
  2. Jean L. Jacobson. “Upsides of Wild Fermentation.” Wine & Vines, 2012. <http://www.winesandvines.com/template.cfm?section=features&content=98687>.
  3. “Marking Red Table Wine.” University of California Davis, 2016. <http://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/pdf/HWM3.pdf>.
  4. James Orr, M.A., D.D. “Wine; Wine Press.” International Bible Encyclopedia, 1915. <http://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/isb/view.cgi?n=9116>.
  5. “Alcohol in the Church.” 2016. <http://www.abidingplace.org/features/alcohol-in-the-church.html>.
  6. Kyle Pope. “Bible Wine.” Olsen Park church of Christ, 2013. <http://www.olsenpark.com/Sermons13/BibleWine.html>.
  7. Alfred Edersheim. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1883. <https://www.ccel.org/ccel/edersheim/lifetimes>.

Cause I heard Jesus, He drank wine

About Scott J. Shifferd

Minister, church of Christ in Jacksonville, FL. Husband and father of four. Email: ScottJon82[at]yahoo.com
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783 Responses to What Kind of Wine Did Jesus Drink?

  1. seattlebruce says:

    Additional comment to the above – I thought you were calling out the percentages I cited relating to alcohol related crimes and behavior, when you may have been discussing the % of alcohol in wine that I mentioned. I think it’s clear that it took a LOT more drinking in days of old to get drunk. We’ve kind of streamlined the process, have we not? 2 or 3 glasses of wine today is equal to 10 to 15 glasses of wine of old. That’s a big difference. We’ve exacerbated and accelerated the problem of alcohol, addiction and alcohol related sin because of this. As such, I think it requires that we Christians exercise more caution than ever related to wine and other types of alcohol – certainly not less!

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  2. coffeebrah says:

    There’s just one problem with the assumption Jesus drankk non-alcoholic wine: botulism. If you don’t let the grape juice ferment enough to make wine, you’ll have bad grape juice and if consumed you’ll become sick with botulism. Grape juice as we know it was near non-existent until the 19th century.

    Drinking a glass of wine or a beer every now and again is not sinful, but getting drunk to the point of brain hinderence is because you can’t make rational decisions.

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    • Anita says:

      Everything that JESUS does IS good. He is without sin and loves us. Therefore, the wine was good, because JESUS made it, and He is perfect. JESUS loves us, beyond our imagination.

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    • it never says Jesus drank the wine. But it does seem fairly obvious it was alcoholic wine, unless people just don’t want to see it.

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      • seattlebruce says:

        “But it does seem fairly obvious it was alcoholic wine, unless people just don’t want to see it.”

        There are references to alcoholic and non-alcoholic wine in the Bible. Alcoholic wine in Biblical times referred to naturally fermented wine. The yeast that exists naturally in the grape will result in a limited alcoholic content by today’s standards – 3% at full fermentation. Compare that with wine today of 12 – 18%, using additional manual processing methods. 4 to 6 glasses of alcoholic wine then, is equal to 1 glass today. Now there is also no good evidence at all that what Jesus made for the Wedding at Cana was fully fermented – to be sure it could have been fresh wine having almost no alcohol. At the very least, what Jesus made miraculously at that wedding, was logically very different than what we make manually today as 12 – 18% alcoholic wine. Acknowledging this reality can bring those Christians who drink wine, and those who advocate refraining from wine for many various reasons, closer together. Some of my friends have acknowledged getting tipsy on just half a glass of wine. Well, no wonder, as that’s like drinking 2 to 3 glasses in Bible days. Knowing this is important. It’s also important to note that half a glass of wine is like a single 12 oz. glass/can of beer. So if our goal here is to understand our brothers and sisters who drink, or who don’t drink, we should try to compare apples to apples, grapes to grapes, and understand what these comparisons are.

        It’s also factual that there are somewhere in the range of 6 to 8% of all drinking adults in the US that are alcoholics (roughly 12 to 14 million people) and another 50% more than that that have problems with alcohol. Understanding, acknowledging and pondering what responsibility we Christians have toward this massive segment of our population will help those Christians who drink and those who don’t ‘get on the same page’ when it comes to this topic. I think Romans 14:22 is instructive and helps us to understand that while there is Christian liberty, there is also Christian sacrifice on behalf of our brothers and sisters, and for our Lord Jesus.

        Let us strive for unity, to be humble and sober for the purpose of prayer.

        Liked by 1 person

          • Steveinjax says:

            Jesus apparently drank enough wine that he was accused of drinking to excess. In his own words he proclaimed, “The Son of Man has come eating and drinking; and you say, ‘Behold, a glutton and a drunkard’” (Luke 7:34). So Jesus was accused of being a drunk.

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            • Let us think about this, because we want to be truthful even if we find ourselves wrong.

              (1) If accusations against Jesus imply that he drank enough or much alcoholic wine to accuse him of excess, then the Scriptures record His drinking of much wine.

              (2) However, Jesus is not recorded drinking alcoholic wine in the Scriptures. Jesus observed in Luke 7:33-35, “For John the Baptist has come eating no bread and drinking no wine, and you say, ‘He has a demon.’ The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Look at him! A glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners! ’ Yet wisdom is justified by all her children.” (ESV) This passage does not imply that he drank wine, but that he ate and drank. Furthermore, this accusation is associated with Jesus’s friendship with tax collectors and sinners. Consider that the accusation includes gluttony, because Jesus ate food. Add that today’s leavened wine at its mildest is not comparable to first-century wine at its most intoxicating as noted by the sources in the above article.

              (3) Therefore, Jesus did not drink enough or much alcoholic wine to truthfully imply accusations of excess.

              Liked by 1 person

  3. Pingback: Alcohol, facts and the Bible | Life of A Christian Girl

  4. Glennis E. James says:

    Isn’t it possible to drink a glass of wine with dinner without becoming drunk or drinking to excess? Isn’t that like saying that if I bring cheesecake to a dinner I am promoting gluttony and obesity? If someone has an addictive personality, he will find something to abuse. The Mormons say that drinking coffee is a sin. I don’t believe that either wine or coffee is inherently sinful, but the abuse of anything is, especially if it becomes important than God.

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    • seattlebruce says:

      “If someone has an addictive personality, he will find something to abuse.”

      What should be Christians’ loving response people who have these addictive personalities that you describe? That question and answer is equally important, if not more so, than the questions regarding Christian liberty, especially in light of the teaching throughout the Word to love and care for those who are weak, helpless, frail, etc.

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      • Rudy Schellekens says:

        the issue was not the addictive personality problem. The issue is how we approach Scripture. Creating incorrect meanings of words to suit a specific “interpretation” should never be a method! The bible speaks of “wine” and of “Strong (or fermented) drink.” The Bible even tells the Jews to buy that, use it it, invite strangers, widows and orphans, and celebrate! That such can cause drunkenness is a fact. But that does not remove Deuteronomy 14 from the Bible!
        Nowhere does the Bible define the alcohol content of both wine or fermented (strong) drink. So we can only guess those levels (since there is no record of such measuring in the new Testament either we are guessing there, too!).
        And yet, here we are, discussing a topic the Bible was never concerned about – the drinking of wine/strong drink. Scripture is concerned about drunkenness in the same way it is concerned about gluttony (Staying with the food, drink). And I have not seen anyone argue that we should do away with food, because of addictive personalities! And remember: In this country obesity is a by far bigger issue than alcoholism!
        our congregation has a monthly potluck. Our ladies are terrific cooks (as are some of our men). But no one measures out the amount of food on people’s plates, even though it would be very, very good to do that for some!
        Let’s work on a balance not only in our intake of… and at the same time work on our balanced approach to Scripture!

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        • Please read Deuteronomy 14:26 again. Why translations say similar drink compared to biblical wine?

          Who told you that gluttony is comparable to drunkenness? Why do you think obesity is caused by gluttony rather than other causes like our food having more fat and sugar, or because we do not walk as much?

          Focus on drunkenness and anything that removes our sobriety. Realize that today’s wine is not like the oinos grape juice that may or may not have fermented.

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          • Rudy Schellekens says:

            I figured someone would say that gluttony and obesity were not related. MOST cases of obesity have to do with dietary choices in portions and content. SOME is related to medical issues. So, we have that out of the way.
            “And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink,” KJV
            You may spend the money for whatever your [a]heart desires: for oxen, or sheep, or wine, or strong drink, or whatever your [b]heart [c]desires; and there you shall eat in the presence of the Lord your God and rejoice, you and your household. NASB
            Use the silver to buy anything you wish—cattle, sheep, wine, beer, or anything you wish. Then you and your family will eat and celebrate there before the Lord your God. NCV
            Then you may spend the money however you wish for cattle, sheep, wine, beer, or whatever you desire. You and your household may eat there in the presence of the Lord your God and enjoy it. NET

            Use the silver to buy whatever you like: cattle, sheep, wine or other fermented drink, or anything you wish. Then you and your household shall eat there in the presence of the Lord your God and rejoice NIV

            I think this is a fairly representative listing of versions. And your statement, “Realize that today’s wine is not like the oinos grape juice that may or may not have fermented…” has no objective basis. You cannot show anyone that the alcohol content was or was not more or less than today’s wine.
            Apart from that, “Others mocking said, “They are full of new wine.”…” NKJV

            But I digress. ALL of us agree that drunkenness is a sin. ALL of us agree that gluttony is a sin. But to argue then that ALL use of alcohol is sin, or wrong is un-biblical (regardless of alcohol content). I have not heard anyone argue that we should stop feeding people, because it might lead to gluttony. And gluttony starts with food, folks! Moderation and responsible use of both is what we need to emphasize, rather than making Scripture say something it never did.

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            • James Barron says:

              So true Rudy. Well said again! The real sin in all this discussion about whether a person should drink wine or not is the sin of distorting scripture to say what they want it to say. A far more grievous sin than even drunkeness.

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            • Who has said that all use of alcohol is sin?

              It has been proven repeatedly that today’s wine is not the same last century, twenty centuries, or thirty-five centuries ago.

              The existence and use of GMO yeast for fermentation proves this. Otherwise, why modify yeast if not for altering fermentation?

              Lastly, please use verbal translations. We have no time for word wrangling.

              As noted elsewhere, grape juice was kept from any fermentation by sealing it in basins and additionally submerging the basins in cool water or boiling them in water for a few hours. Also, the grape juice was also boiled down to a syrup. See the Biblical Encyclopedia and the numerous authorities in Anti-Bacchus about the preservation of grape juice with fermentation. I refer you also to “Bible Wines” by William Patton.

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            • Is the strong drink in Deut 14:26 applicable to Christians? This is Moses’s law (2 Cor 3, Heb 8:13), and we know that Moses wrote some things because of the hardness of heart (Matt 19).

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            • Rudy Schellekens says:

              Again, those are “straw men” or, as someone from Holland might say, “Red herrings.” The problem is in the argumentation and misuse of Scripture. No one argues for drunkenness.

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            • There are numerous ancients sources that note the preservation of grape juice without alcohol. See Palladius, Horace, Democritus, Columella, Pliny, and the Mishna. Alcohol evaporates at 170F and grape juice boils at 212F.

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        • seattlebruce says:

          “So we can only guess those levels”

          Wine naturally ferments fully to 3% alcohol, after which its natural yeast is used up. Compare that with a glass of modern wine at 12 to 18% and you see that one glass of wine today is 4 to 6 glasses of old. At the very least we have a different, and more intense alcohol today causing many more problems for many more people. Can we agree on that piece? Unless and until you work with recovery programs, this will just remain esoteric, but when you do, it becomes life and health. Romans 14:22 tells us that ‘whatever you think about these things, keep between yourself and God” and 1 Cor. 13 tells us that “Love always protects.” That is where I believe the Christian needs to ponder what it means to set an example and operate in the Spirit in today’s world. Notice I did not say a believer couldn’t discretely drink a glass of wine. But please notice what I did say Scripturally here.

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          • Rudy Schellekens says:

            IF the % matters, I should be good with beer, right? Most of that is in the 3% – 5% range. Is that really a solution???

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          • seattlebruce says:

            That’s true – beer is less intoxicating than wine, actually. I think from the standpoint of wisdom – better 1 or 2 beers than 1 or 2 glasses of wine, actually. But Romans 14:22 is even more important – I should keep these kinds of liberties, no matter what I think, between myself and God.

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        • seattlebruce says:

          “And I have not seen anyone argue that we should do away with food, because of addictive personalities! And remember: In this country obesity is a by far bigger issue than alcoholism!”

          Obesity is a huge issue. As is lack of exercise, and all around not caring for the temple of the Holy Spirit that God has given us. But let’s take your parallel here and examine. Does overeating cause people to completely lose control of their lives, marriages, families and jobs? For some small percentage of people/Americans (since we’re examining our culture for the moment) yes. But for 8 to 10% of drinkers alcoholism does indeed cause them to lose complete control of their lives, health, marriages, families and jobs. There are 12 million alcoholics – at least, and many times higher than that the number who are impacted by it as part of an alcoholic family units – by many estimates 50 million Americans in these alcoholic family units. Also consider that alcohol is a factor in the following [http://www.learn-about-alcoholism.com/statistics-on-alcoholics.html]:
          73% of all felonies
          73% of child beating cases
          41% of rape cases
          81% of wife battering cases
          72% of stabbings
          83% of homicides

          What is this comparison you make to food?

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          • Rudy Schellekens says:

            Once again, the issue is NOT drinking or eating. The issue is: How do we apply biblical passages?
            As far as the percentages go, it does not matter! Gluttony is a sin – eating is not. Drunkenness is a sin – drinking a glass of wine is not. As we are cautioning people about drinking a glass of wine (and the POSSIBLE repercussions), so we should caution people about eating habits (And the POSSIBLE repercussions). Or smoking. Or extreme sports. Or workaholicism… ANYTHING which harms our body is bad. Who cares about percentages?
            ANY abuse of Scripture is wrong, who cares about the percentages?

            Like

            • seattlebruce says:

              ” Who cares about percentages?”

              The topic of this post is ‘What kind of wine did Jesus drink?’ And importantly from the discussion of that, the author draws distinctions between ancient wine, and modern wine, and even what would be considered closer to grape juice (although perhaps slightly fermented on the vine). This too, the Bible calls wine. I agree that our approach to Scripture should be one of rigor and honor – as it is God’s Word, and our authority for faith and life. God is not a God of confusion, nor One who ignores reality or context in our lives. “If any lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who will give it generously and without reproach.” (James 1:5) Also, “from Issachar, men who understood the times and knew what Israel should do.” (I Chron. 12:32). The statistics are important, as they provide a backdrop to knowing our times, and to seeking wisdom about how a Christian should approach wine and drinking, especially in light of Romans 14:22, “Whatever you think about these things (Christian liberties involving eating and drinking), keep between yourself and God.” Further, any of the so-called positive passages about wine, need to be considered within the historical and cultural context from which they came, as this is a basic hermeneutic principle. Even Duet. 14:26 with its mention of wine or other fermented drink should be understood to mean 3% alcoholic wine, let’s say, and that festival was once/year – so where does that fit in with the thought that this kind of gives great license to drinking our more highly alcoholic wine much more frequently. Perhaps once/year, in the context of that culture, and with much less alcohol than a glass of modern wine contains. Clearly we need to take Deut. 14:26 alongside of the the warnings of Scripture that ‘Wine is a mocker’ (Prov. 20), as they are part of the context here, and Scriptural context, historical and cultural context, applying sound hermeneutics, are part of not abusing Scripture in ANY way – that you’re calling for, right Rudy?

              To answer your question – God cares about the percentages, because God loves people. “For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life.” And so, if I choose to imitate God, I too will seek to love (all) people, and I too will care about what damages God’s creation, and I too will sacrifice my liberty to drink (perhaps), or to drink too brashly and openly when so many are suffering from it (Phil 1:30).

              Yeah, context matters. The Word is to be honored, and if we don’t APPLY the Word in light of the times we live in, how gravely do we abuse it?

              Liked by 1 person

          • seattlebruce says:

            Additional comment to the above – I thought you were calling out the percentages I cited relating to alcohol related crimes and behavior, when you may have been discussing the % of alcohol in wine that I mentioned. I think it’s clear that it took a LOT more drinking in days of old to get drunk. We’ve kind of streamlined the process, have we not? 2 or 3 glasses of wine today is equal to 10 to 15 glasses of wine of old. That’s a big difference. We’ve exacerbated and accelerated the problem of alcohol, addiction and alcohol related sin because of this. As such, I think it requires that we Christians exercise more caution than ever related to wine and other types of alcohol – certainly not less!

            Like

      • Glennis E. James says:

        People who are addicted to wine will only be okay when they choose to face their addiction and overcome it and we can offer them emotional support as they strive to do this. However, just like any addiction, they must reach the point where they are able to resist temptation. The bars, restaurants, and liquor stores are always going to be there. The strength and willingness has to come from within. Whether it’s wine, food, sex, money or whatever, anything can destroy your life if you make it the most important thing. We can help by being there for them but I’m never going to cure an alcoholic by not having a glass of wine. He has to do work on that.

        Like

        • seattlebruce says:

          “The bars, restaurants, and liquor stores are always going to be there. The strength and willingness has to come from within.”

          True. What we don’t need however, are churches contributing to the temptations for our brothers and sisters, and what they need from us who don’t struggle with this, is empathy and compassion and perhaps some self sacrifice. If you work with the recovery community, you’ll understand exactly what this entails, and you’ll discover practical means to execute, even if you drink. But in my humble opinion, even if you don’t work with that kind of ministry, or with impressionable kids, or what not, all Christians should ponder their attitude, approach and strategy about alcohol because of the pervasiveness of the problem. Here’s something to think about related to the impact of alcohol on our youth: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/underage-drinking-community-guide.pdf. Look, if the Surgeon General can issue a Call to Action – then what about the Church of Jesus Christ?

          Like

          • Rudy Schellekens says:

            our “family” struggles with many things, from pride to greed to alcohol, sex etc. We should treat all with the same consideration. some of those in recovery groups are addicted to sex. Should we therefore no longer talk about how sexual relations fit within marriage?
            teaching on moderation covers a lot of areas, so let’s treat all of them with the same consideration. And, use Scripture with the same careful approach, no matter what the subject is.

            After all of this, I would like to ask a question on a totally different subject. Why does it seem that churches of Christ have lost their concept of God?

            Like

            • seattlebruce says:

              “our “family” struggles with many things, from pride to greed to alcohol, sex etc. We should treat all with the same consideration. some of those in recovery groups are addicted to sex. Should we therefore no longer talk about how sexual relations fit within marriage? teaching on moderation covers a lot of areas, so let’s treat all of them with the same consideration. And, use Scripture with the same careful approach, no matter what the subject is.”

              Yes agreed. However some churches are having keggers in the parking lots, and wine events to raise funds, and to accompany Bible study. Clearly such events give not even one passing thought to the recovering alcoholic, or those that may become one. The same sorts of events are not being held related to discussions on sex, and a sound discussion of sex need not be titillating, and tempting for brothers and sisters who are weak in that area. One drink (leading to thousands more) can kill a decade or two, or take lives. Talking about moderation, and consideration – we need to be cognizant and aware of reality here as well. Consuming alcohol – a dangerous drug – should not be encouraged within the churches. And as Paul said about Christian liberty, “Whatever you think about these things, keep between yourself and God.” (Romans 14:22). if we care about our alcoholic brothers and sisters, and those who may become alcoholics (about 10 % of all who drink), then we should be very cautious with the much more highly alcoholic drinks that are common today. We need to love our brothers and sisters that much.

              Like

        • seattlebruce says:

          “We can help by being there for them but I’m never going to cure an alcoholic by not having a glass of wine.”

          True. But by not drinking carelessly in front of those who struggle with alcohol, are alcoholics, or may become alcoholics, you minimize the acceptance of drinking as normal or preferable, and the peer pressure such feel when they view people they love and respect imbibing, when they themselves shouldn’t/can’t. You can’t tell me that peer pressure doesn’t enter into these decisions – especially for our teenagers. 14 year olds that binge drink (and that’s what teens do, BTW) are about 8 times more likely to become alcoholic adults than the percentage in the general population. Wisdom and love would compel those who seek to disciple and model for the next generation to be VERY cautious about today’s more highly alcoholic drinks.

          Like

          • j says:

            I am a Jew living in Israel and read your interesting note. We Jews traditionally bless pri ha-gephen the fruit of the grape, which is not necessarily alcoholic. Unfermented sweetened grape juice is normally used when children are at the table and it is perfectly kosher (ritually correct). I am not an expert, but you are right in proposing that the wine in the Kanna wedding may have been fresh (“new”) grape juice or maximum, some very low grade wine. BTW, there is no mention in the Bible of strong liquors at all. I like reading your blog.

            Liked by 1 person

  5. Kevin Lang says:

    I’m glad we have a creator God who allows us the simple pleasures of life in moderation. For some who are born alcoholics I understand their need to avoid alcoholic beverages at all costs because of their disease. Just as food is healthy in moderation, overindulgence (gluttony) is harmful and the scriptures warn against this possibility for some. For others who aren’t alcoholics, enjoying wine in moderation has been shown to have many health benefits and a calming effect on the nervous system. Many centenarians have attributed their longevity due in part to “drinking a glass of wine” daily. Prevention magazine recently published an article touting over 8 health benefit of Red Wine to include protecting the heart and lowering cholesterol. For you Christians who would like some biblical advice, Paul had is right when he suggested that we “stop drinking only water, and use a little wine because of your stomach’s and your frequent illnesses.” (I Timothy 5:23).

    (http://www.prevention.com/health/healthy-living/health-benefits-red-wine)

    Like

  6. deeplyaware says:

    By the way, it’s a funny pun: Seeing God’s Breath, an article about alcohol…
    This article does everything except address middle-of-the-road issues, it only mentions excessive drinking as examples. It’s an empty-shell of an article because of it.

    Like

    • seattlebruce says:

      deeplyaware: “It’s an empty-shell of an article because of it.”

      Firstly, your mockery of another believer’s (pastor’s) efforts at interpretation of such an important topic, is not helpful. All that this author points out is that Biblical references to wine indicate both alcoholic and non-alcoholic wine existed and that furthermore alcoholic wine wasn’t as strong as it is in modern times. Whether or not, you or I agree with Mr. Shifferd’s conclusion that there’s not one positive reference to alcoholic wine in the Bible, is not as important (imho) as his other point that we should be more passionate in defending Christ’s teaching of temperance than defending our use of alcohol, and his points elsewhere that we should passionately be preaching Christ to a lost world (over and above our passion to defend drinking.) In any case, in my mind it’s not so much about whether one drinks a glass of wine or two, but how one comports oneself before weaker brothers, and sisters, and children. Romans 14:22 states, “So whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who does not condemn himself by what he approves.” Please take these matters to heart friend.

      Like

  7. deeplyaware says:

    Wow, so much spinning of the scriptures. It all boils down to fear. The author, and so many Christians are so afraid that they might make someone fall into alcoholism, and they will go to hell for it. Grow up! Sounds so silly to say that the wine Jesus made was different than the wine the apostles, just a short few years later, said not to drink too much of. Also, sounds so silly to assume there were no alcoholics during Jesus time, yet he did not hesitate to make water into wine. If Jesus wanted to send the right message, do you think he would have even risked being misinterpreted by make water into “non-alcoholic” wine? The truth, in common sense, is that there is freedom. You can be sensible to the people you know suffer from alcoholism, but still have the freedom to drink. People who prohibit drinking of alcohol, add to the Bible things which are not in the Bible, all in the name of justifying their own fear, and in misunderstanding what God is all about.

    Like

    • Charlie says:

      It couldn’t be said any clearer than deeplyaware has said it. I don’t know why this subject has been going on and on for so long, it has been answered over and over again correctly, it’s the incorrect answers that cause doubt and confusion. The incorrect answers have also been shown to be incorrect and the correct answers are shown to be correct straight from the bible but somehow they are not good enough for some. Some seem to have their mind dead set against any alcohol that they have their minds so made up they blind themselves to the truth and even read into scripture to make themselves blind.
      Jesus turned water into wine, Jesus drank wine, the bible said to use a little wine for the stomaches sake, God said to go to the feast of tabernacles and enjoy wine or even strong drink while there rejoicing. On the other hand God plainly tells us that it’s the excess of wine where the problem is, and that too much causes problems. Having a drink or two and enjoying it as well as having a good time with others is not wrong or harmful as the bible shows, but we are all responsible for our own actions and drinking in excess is what we are not to do, not forbid it totally. Getting drunk is sin, drinking in moderation is not. Eating too much and being a glutton is sin, but food isn’t forbidden, eating properly is the answer. Everything is so plain until we try to change scripture to make it say what it doesn’t say, just like deeplyaware explained. I think it’s time for another subject, this one is going around in circles and hopefully some aren’t becoming wrongfully confused because of it.

      Like

      • Rudy Schellekens says:

        My question was more based on the idea that the conclusions one reaches on this (and some other topics) are based on the culture of the author, rather than an unbiased application of Scripture.
        And there are a few more of those… Our use of the passage in 1 Cor. 6 in the context of smoking, for example. I have never heard this used in the actual context of the passage (sexual immorality with prostitutes)…
        Or Acts 20 – introducing the work “every” into our reading and use for the frequency of the Lord’s Supper.

        Like

        • You have a point about 1 Cor 6, but I did not misuse that passage. Acts 20:7 does not say “every”, but does affirm the practice of the disciples (all Christians) to assemble on the first day of the week to break bread. Is there a better time to assembly than when all first-century Christians assembled along with the Apostles? Also, why wrangle with other believers over the word “every”?

          Furthermore, “the breaking of bread” is the Lord’s Supper (1 Cor 10:16). We are to partake of the Lord’s Supper when we meet together in the assembly (1 Cor 11:17-34). We are not to forsake our assembling together (Heb 10:24-25). The custom of forsaking the assembly shows a lack of hope (Heb 10:23). Willful sinning ends with giving up Christ’s sacrifice, fear of judgment, and coming to fiery indignation (Heb 10:26-27). What more needs to be said?

          Please consider a kinder approach to your comments.

          Like

          • Gary W. says:

            Scott, I hardly see where Acts20:7 “affirms the practice” of the disciples assembling on the first day of the week. This was a one-time event that Luke reports took place a day before they departed from Troas. We need to be careful we don’t read into Scripture things that are not there. The early Christians met together many times weekly, at different homes and different days of the week. Their meetings consisted of teaching, fellowship, breaking of the bread and prayer (Acts 2). There is no pattern set in the New Testament of meeting one day a week on Sunday.

            Like

          • Rudy schellekens says:

            Simple: the difficulty in explaining vs 7 and 11 in the text. Also, the problem in Acts 2 – broke bread daily.
            The danger of assuming the gathering to be habitual in Acts 20.
            The imperative “as often as you do this…”
            There is by far a stronger historical case for the celebration of the Supper on the first day of every week than can be made from Acts 20!
            Please know that I am not trying to be unkind!
            “We,” too, have to be consistent on our use of the Bible, like we demand others to be!

            Like

            • Verse 11 is singular. Acts 2 differentiates between the breaking of bread and the daily breaking of bread. There is already an article posted on this. Acts 20:7 says that the disciples broke bread on the first day. First Corinthians 11 says every time that they assembled together (20, 33).

              Like

            • Rudy Schellekens says:

              Singular: Paul, in the company of the disciples, took a meal by himself? Is that not pushing the text a bit??
              Acts is plural… “They broke break…”
              42 They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer. 43 Everyone was filled with awe at the many wonders and signs performed by the apostles. 44 All the believers were together and had everything in common. 45 They sold property and possessions to give to anyone who had need. 46 Every day they continued to meet together in the temple courts. They broke bread in their homes and ate together with glad and sincere hearts, 47 praising God and enjoying the favor of all the people. And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved…”
              I know there is a line of arguing that goes, “If the text says “they broke bread and they ate…” it was a common meal, but when it just says “They broke bread…” then it was the Lord’s Supper..”

              Like

      • Gary W. says:

        Charlie, Unlike the author of this article and many like him, you undoubtedly are able to understand Scripture and the truth concerning this subject of drinking alcoholic beverages. Those who are able to set aside their emotions and their ideas of what they want the Bible to say, and do an honest study from Genesis to Revelation, will come to the realization that God actually encourages Christians to drink. The Bible is so convincingly clear about this that it’s astonishing how anyone can proffer anything different.

        Like

    • Anita says:

      I love receiving the wine and bread at MASS where the Priest turns the bread into JESUS’s precious body and the wine into HIS precious blood and I consume JESUS!!! It is heaven on earth!

      Like

    • As the author, this is not partly true. No fear here — just truth. There is no indoctrination either. My brethren have no creed or hierarchy other than Christ and His Spirit’s words in Scripture.

      For my stomach’s sake, I may drink a little wine with my water. The Bible warns against wine without a positive statement about strong drink in the Scriptures. There are few passages that suggest moderation, but for the most part, excess drinking and being intoxicated are taught against. Drink all the new oinos you want, but be filled with the Spirit rather than with wine (Eph 5:18-19). Let us defend Christ’s word of temperance more than alcohol.

      Like

    • Bruce Anderson says:

      “The truth, in common sense, is that there is freedom. You can be sensible to the people you know suffer from alcoholism, but still have the freedom to drink.”

      Please elaborate how we should be sensitive to those suffering from alcoholism, in light of Romans 14:22,23. Thank you. My personal view is that since studies indicate that 10 – 30% of people in our modern day struggle with drinking (and the distillation of alcohol has made for MUCH stronger drinks than in Jesus day, fermented or non-fermented discussion aside), that Romans 14:22 clearly states, “22 So whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who does not condemn himself by what he approves.”

      Like

      • Alcoholism is a coping addiction. It is a sign of depression or at least a practice of anxiety. As our faith, hope, and love in God grow, our reliance on alcohol will decrease. I have ministered to those struggling up and down with this addiction. Using biblical “therapy”, I have ministered to them through awareness.

        All people should be able to relate. Some of us eat to treat our nagging stresses in life (i.e. the sad may eat ice cream or some other “comfort food”). While this may be temporary, alcohol will not easily let go of the individual who uses it for personal treatment.

        The key to helping others with addictions and habitual sins is to help them realize God’s forgiving grace and also to see through their behavior to the destructive outcome. We want to encourage them to see through these temptations, urges, and sins all the time despite the setting. When we see the inevitable outcome of something harmful and we detest it, then we will not give into it.

        Add to this that seeing that God has previously forgiven us this sin actually will keep us from doing it again. When we do not realize this, we continue in sin, convince ourselves of false grace, and we have no more forgiveness (Rom 6:1-2, 1 John 1:5-10). Seeing God’s forgiving grace increases our love for God and compels us to die with Christ to sin (Luke 7:40-50, 2 Cor 5:14-15). The indwelling of God’s love is the way in which the Spirit continues to indwell in Christians (1 John 4:12-13, 16).

        This is my actual format for addressing such addictions:
        http://Godsbreath.net/2012/12/12/how-to-overcome-addictions-with-christ/

        Otherwise, we further read and consider other passages of Scripture:
        http://Godsbreath.net/2011/12/02/addiction-bible-verses/

        Now, I think that I need to write a new article. Thank you, Bruce.

        Like

      • deeplyaware says:

        I should not have to elaborate on this, but I’ll give an example: do not serve wine at your dinner when people are coming over, until you check with them if they drink or not (some may not drink because they do not drink, some may not drink because they have a problem with alcohol.) As far as whether alcohol is stronger now than it was then, is really irrelevant, because the Bible says both that it is OK to drink, and urges people to not drink too much. So if the wine was weaker back then, it probably took drinking a lot more of it to get drunk, and to prompt people in the Bible to say, don’t be drunk with wine. The idea is the same, that you drink too much, regardless how strong the alcohol is and how much of it gets you to that point. The main idea was that Jesus came eating and drinking, and people still had a problem with it. In the end, you might be part of someone drinking wine the first time, and falling into alcoholism. You need to get over that. I know people like that. They need to learn to forgive themselves, otherwise, you’ll live a life of fear, a prison, really, that you might cause someone to sin. God wants us to live in freedom. He’ll forgive us as many times as we sin. We need to accept his continuing grace, even if our sinning does not diminish, because some people will die being addicted to various things, and this does not mean they are not saved. If God got rid of all of our sins, we would be horrible people, very mean to others, unforgiving, and imposing on others all kinds of rules. But because God’s grace, we have a shot at being somewhat humble, because we have to continually go to him for more forgiveness.

        Like

  8. Rudy Schellekens says:

    What surprises me, is that this passage is overlooked in most studies on the subject of whether or not God’s children can drink fermented drinks.
    Of course, another case is found in the Nazorite vows – abstain from strong drink. If I am expected to abstain because of a particular vow, that means that those who are not under this vow have no such restriction.
    From a logical perspective, when there is a command against drunkenness, I cannot come to any other conclusion than: The use of fermented liquids is indeed allowed – as long as I am not drunk.
    And yes, I understand the “safety” argument, but that is not a Biblical argument!

    Like

    • The safety argument comes from Romans 14:23 applied to context 14:14-23 that references wine, oinos.

      I remember studying Deuteronomy 14:26, but I do not remember my conclusion. Still, there is no positive reference to strong drink. We could ask further about the purposes of this strong drink. These were often alcoholic mixed with other substances. Was this medicinal?

      Like

      • Rudy Schellekens says:

        My preferred position is: What does the text say? A question I would ask is, “Does it conflict with any other text on the same subject?” Since there is no further information about the question you asked re. medicinal, and since there is no conflict with any other passage on the same subject, it stands as it is.

        Like

      • Gary W. says:

        No positive reference to strong drink? KJV says “or for sheep, or for wine or for STRONG DRINK”. English Standard Version says “or sheep, or wine, or STRONG DRINK”. How much more positive can one get, Scott?

        Like

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