Keys to Understand the Song of Solomon

The Song of Songs is one of the most beautiful books of the Bible and one of the most misunderstood. The beauty of this theatrical song is greater than that of the words of Shakespeare. Some have commented jokingly on how many parents want their children to read the Bible except for the Song of Solomon. The Song of Songs is not so much about sex as some make it to be. The book has sexual references, and through this book, God endorses sex within marriage. This article provides some critical keys to understanding Song of Songs and some insight.

The Song of Songs is a poem like all songs. This song is meant to be read more than once to be understood. Inspired poems are always great for reflection between this world and the spiritual, which God’s Word in this way acts as a mirror to reflect our own hearts for observing ourselves (cf. 2 Cor. 3:18, Jas. 1:23-25).

There are four main interpretations of this book. Two are literal interpretations that look at the young woman who is at the center of this theatrical song. The most common understand is that this is a courtship and marriage of Solomon and the Shulamite woman. The fact that the name Solomon and Shulamite are similar having common meaning of “peace”. The other interpretation pictures a love triangle between the beloved women, her beloved shepherd, and the king appealing to her.

The other figurative interpretations that are placed upon the book include either the relationship between Israel and God and, or the Church and Christ. The Song of Songs is clearly from Solomon, and it centers on a young woman’s words of love for her beloved. This study does prefer one interpretation over the others, but the reader is encouraged not to overlook the other interpretations and consider that the Song of Songs may have been intended to have multiple applications.

Now, the Song of Songs is a poem and one that can only be understood by examining what some translations lack. One of the keys of interpretation in any writing is to realize who is speaking to whom. This is a critical key to understanding this whole book. In the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament, it is clear that the Solomon’s Song has specific characters, which are distinguished by whether a statement is spoken in the singular or plural, and the rest is understood from the context of whether the perspective of the speaker is from the feminine or masculine. This leaves an ambiguity to understanding if there are 1 or 2 masculine characters. Use the aid at the end of this article to help you distinguish characters while noting that it is subjective to interpretation.

The Song of Songs is written about a young woman’s love for her beloved. One literal interpretation states that this is a discourse between young woman betrothed and marrying King Solomon. The other interpretation is that a young woman must choose between King Solomon and her beloved shepherd. The first interpretation seems unlikely when one recognizes that the young woman’s beloved is a shepherd rather than a king, and the shepherd and the king are apparently in different places. See, when the beloved woman is in the presence of the king, Song of Songs 1:7 says, “Tell me, O you whom I love, Where you feed your flock, Where you make it rest at noon. For why should I be as one who veils herself By the flocks of your companions?” Then the beloved woman thinks about her shepherd in her bedroom, Song of Songs 2:16 says, “My beloved is mine, and I am his. He feeds his flock among the lilies.” Again, while the beloved woman is in the presence of the king, Song of Songs 6:2-3 says “My beloved has gone to his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed his flock in the gardens, And to gather lilies. I am my beloved’s, And my beloved is mine. He feeds his flock among the lilies.” From this understanding, the Song of Solomon is about a young woman choosing between her beloved shepherd and the King’s charms and proposal, which he makes when “there are sixty queens, And eighty concubines, And virgins without number” (6:8). Yet, the king said to this beloved woman, “My dove, my perfect one, Is the only one”. Yet, some may still believe that the Song is about Solomon’s recommitment in marriage to one spouse, and that is for the student to decide for oneself.

A beautiful poetic story about a young woman’s choosing between the King and her beloved shepherd is greatly beneficial to everyone especially to adolescent girls, young women, their matron mentors, fathers, and everyone looking after the integrity of young love and marriage. The lessons in this book are (and there maybe more): 1) true love and choosing the right mate, 2) waiting for love, 3) teaching young women and men about what is most important about marriage, 4) understanding the affection of your spouse, and 5) remembering when love was fresh. What better way could have this been taught than from the perspective of a young woman whose loyal love blesses her marriage. Shakespeare could not have written with this divine understanding. Now, look at the construction of this song, and see how it able to teach these lessons.

The Song of Solomon was written in a theatrical style. It is apparent to all that it was originally composed to be performed before an audience. Since it is called a song, we could say it was an ancient musical. Remember that the parts of the play are distinguished gender and number, and to whom one is spoken to by gender and number. Look at the scenes.

The Scenes of the Song of Songs

Scene 1 takes place in the King’s inner rooms (1:4). Here the young woman is thinking about her beloved shepherd. See “The king has brought me into his chambers” (Song of Songs 1:4). The young woman imagines her beloved coming to her in Song of Solomon 2:8-10 saying,

“The voice of my beloved! Behold, he comes Leaping upon the mountains, Skipping upon the hills. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young stag. Behold, he stands behind our wall; He is looking through the windows, Gazing through the lattice. My beloved spoke, and said to me: ‘Rise up, my love, my fair one, And come away.’

Though in the king’s inner rooms, the woman thinks about her beloved’s place and she describes it, “Behold, you are beautiful, my beloved, truly delightful. Our couch is shady [green]; the beams of our house are cedar; our rafters are pine” (Song of Songs 1:16-17). The young woman recognizes who she is, and proclaims it before the king, “I am a flower of the plain, and a lily of the valleys” (Song 2:1).

Scene 2 starts in chapter 3 on the young woman’s bed that is at her mother’s house (3:1). In this scene, she dreams of looking for her beloved one in the city streets at night. She searches asking the city guards for her beloved.

Scene 3 presents Solomon’s entrance into Jerusalem (3:11). Here the chorus describes Solomon to “the daughters of Jerusalem” speaking in 3:6-11,

“Who is this coming out of the wilderness Like pillars of smoke, Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, With all the merchant’s fragrant powders? Behold, it is Solomon’s couch, With sixty valiant men around it, Of the valiant of Israel. They all hold swords, Being expert in war. Every man has his sword on his thigh Because of fear in the night. Of the wood of Lebanon Solomon the King made himself a palanquin: He made its pillars of silver, Its support of gold, Its seat of purple, Its interior paved with love By the daughters of Jerusalem. Go forth, O daughters of Zion, And see King Solomon with the crown With which his mother crowned him On the day of his wedding, The day of the gladness of his heart.”

Then in chapter 4, Solomon speaks to the young woman praising her body, and the woman rejects him. She says in Song of Songs 4:6, “Until the day breaks And the shadows flee away, I will go my way to the mountain of myrrh And to the hill of frankincense.” Then the beloved shepherd speaks to the young woman about their love, and the young woman accepts him. She says in Song of Songs 4:16, “Awake, O north wind, And come, O south! Blow upon my garden, That its spices may flow out. Let my beloved come to his garden And eat its pleasant fruits.” Clearly the charming words of Solomon do not work, but the words of the beloved shepherd do.

Scene 4 presents the woman dreaming of her marriage (ch. 5). She dreams of her beloved coming to the door, but she hesitates and she goes to the door but her beloved shepherd is gone. Again, she goes and looks for him in her dreams. This time she asks the guards again, but they beat her, which may be a metaphor for stopping her from finding her beloved. She no longer has favor with them. Even the daughters of Jerusalem do not care.

Next is scene 5 where the king tries to persuade the young woman (6-7). They speak to the woman to come to them (6:4-13). This is where she receives the name Shulamite, “Return, return, O Shulamite; Return, return, that we may look upon you!” The young woman replied “What shall you see in the Shulamite? She comes as a company of the camps.” (6:13, 7:1). See, she is not one of Solomon’s brides. After this, again Solomon tries to charm her again.

In scene 6, the young woman comes with her beloved to the country town in chapter 8. The village sees that she has returned with her beloved and not the king. The chorus says in Song of Solomon 8:5a, “Who is this coming up from the wilderness, Leaning upon her beloved?” The young woman gives advice to the village about raising their daughters. Then she and her beloved go away together.

The Application of the Song of Songs

1. The Song of Solomon is about true love and choosing the right mate. Look how the beloved shepherd describes his young woman. He praises her purity and chastity saying Song of Songs 4:12, “A garden enclosed Is my sister, my spouse, A spring shut up, A fountain sealed.” He also sees her as fruitful and life-giving saying Song of Songs 4:15, “A fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And streams from Lebanon.” She is refreshing to him. This is true love. See the young woman who was loyal and loves unto death (4:6). Though the king could provide luxury, the shepherd is able to provide something without a price.

The shepherd expresses his love and his desire for her love or death in Song of Solomon 8:6-7,

“Set me as a seal upon your heart, As a seal upon your arm; For love is as strong as death, Zeal as cruel as the grave; Its flames are flames of fire, A most vehement flame. Many waters cannot quench love, Nor can the floods drown it. If a man would give for love All the wealth of his house, It would be utterly despised.”

The shepherd’s love is like flames that being covered in water could not be quenched, and no one can put a price on this kind of love. Now, what if everyone felt this way about the love for their spouse?

2. The Song of Songs is about waiting for love. A clear message taught on three different occasions throughout the text is from the mouth of the young woman concerning her conviction and wisdom about love. She says in Song 2:7, “I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles or by the does of the field, Do not stir up nor awaken love Until it pleases”, and in similar words in Song of Songs 3:5 and 8:4. One should wait for love. “Daughters of Jerusalem” must not rush to the wealthy man or go to the man who flatters by praising her appearance. Wait for love meant for marriage.

3. Solomon’s Song is about teaching our young women and men about what is most important about marriage. Parents, siblings, and young married women need to teach. The chorus, the village, asks the young woman for advice saying in Song of Solomon 8:8, “What shall we do for our sister In the day when she is spoken for?” The woman replies in Song of Songs 8:9, “If she is a wall, We will build upon her A battlement of silver; And if she is a door, We will enclose her With boards of cedar.” In other words, the beloved’s woman encourages the village that they should strengthen her defenses and her loyalty to do what is right. See, she is not taken away from her love, but she must wait for true love and not be fooled. Remember the woman’s teaching to the daughters of Jerusalem, “Do not stir up nor awaken love Until it pleases.”

4. The Song of Songs is about understanding the affection of your spouse. As many couples can relate to the woman’s dream in Song of Songs 5:2-6,

“I sleep, but my heart is awake; It is the voice of my beloved! He knocks, saying, ‘Open for me, my sister, my love, My dove, my perfect one; For my head is covered with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’ [She says] I have taken off my robe; How can I put it on again? I have washed my feet; How can I defile them? My beloved put his hand By the latch of the door, And my heart yearned for him. I arose to open for my beloved, And my hands dripped with myrrh, My fingers with liquid myrrh, On the handles of the lock. I opened for my beloved, But my beloved had turned away and was gone. My heart leaped up when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer.

See when men read this, most see their wife putting off the due affection. While in contrast, women notice the impatient husband who are not around when they are ready. There is much more here for personal study. Remember 1 Corinthians 7:2-4,

“Nevertheless, because of sexual immorality, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. Let the husband render to his wife the affection due her, and likewise also the wife to her husband. The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does. And likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does.”

5. This is about remembering when love was fiery passion. The whole book reflects youthful love to those whose love has grown cold. The shepherd’s love has already been presented, but see the woman’s love in Song of Songs 3:1-2,

“By night on my bed I sought the one I love; I sought him, but I did not find him. ‘I will rise now,’ I said, ‘And go about the city; In the streets and in the squares I will seek the one I love.’ I sought him, but I did not find him.”

See how she dreams about her beloved and how she desires him. This is all according to God’s will. Remember God’s words in Genesis 2:18, “And the LORD God said, ‘It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him.’” The love between man and woman is by God’s design and by his blessing. Proverb 18:22 states, “He who finds a wife finds a good thing, And obtains favor from the LORD.” May God bless everyone, who studies the Song of Songs.


Who is Speaking in the Song of Songs?

The Song of Songs is a theatrical song consisting of a number of parts determined in the original by number of the one(s) speaking and the context’s perception of the gender. The singular feminine is always the young woman while the masculine singular is either the king or the shepherd determined by clues in the speech and context. The chorus may be the daughters of Jerusalem, wives and concubines of the king, and the young woman’s village. In addition to this interpretation, this script will also provide the alternate interpretation for Solomon’s courtship and marriage to the Shulamite woman in brackets beside the title of each scene for one’s own determination.

Scene 1 – The King’s Palace [Courtship]
1:1 title line
1:2-1:4a young woman (ends with the word “chambers”)
1:4b chorus
1:5-7 young woman
1:8 chorus
1:9-10 king
1:11 chorus
1:12-14 young woman
1:15 king
1:16-2:1 young woman
2:2 king
2:3-5 young woman

Scene 2 – Young Woman’s Bedroom [Commitment]
2:6-3:5 young woman

Scene 3 – King’s Entrance [Ceremony]
3:6-11 chorus

Scene 4 – Young Woman’s Bedroom [Consummation]
4:1-5 king
4:6 young woman
4:7-15 beloved shepherd
4:16 young woman
5:1 beloved shepherd

Scene 5 – Presence of the King [Conflict]
5:2-8 young woman
5:9 chorus
5:10-16 young woman
6:1 chorus
6:2-3 young woman
6:4-9 king
6:10 chorus
6:11-12 king
6:13a chorus (ends with “among you.”)
6:13b young woman
7:1-5 chorus
7:6-9a king
7:9b-13 young woman

Scene 6 – Beloved’s Country Town [Continued Courtship]
8:1-4 young woman
8:5a chorus (ends with “beloved?”)
8:5b-8:7 beloved shepherd
8:8-9 chorus
8:10-12 young woman
8:13 beloved shepherd
8:14 young woman

About Scott Shifferd Jr.

Minister, church of Christ in Jacksonville, FL. Husband and father of four. Email: ScottJon82[at]
This entry was posted in Christian, Church of Christ, Faith and tagged , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

36 Responses to Keys to Understand the Song of Solomon

  1. Joseph says:

    This whole love song is about Solomon finding ONE true love. Solomon had many many concubines and they are like the daughters of Jerusalem. But their is only one True Love for Solomon and it’s not a women it’s God! This whole book is about Solomon deciding to follow God in obedience to His Word. Solomon strayed away from his obedience to God because of his many many concubines (daughters of Jerusalem). Though God warned Solomon he did not listen to God and ended up going into idolatry and the lusts of the flesh. God is wooing King Solomon to Himself by revealing to Solomon what True love is. By God showing Solomon what true love is, Solomon would be able to choose only ONE to be his bride and stop his fornication with all the other women! This whole book is about obedience and living under God’s charge and commands. Jesus said, “if you love me keep my commandments.” We don’t love the Lord when we are disobedient. We show our love for God when we obey Him! When we do not put God off and we are diligent about serving Him! Unlike the daughters of Jerusalem like Solmon’s many concubines, the bride of Christ is only in love with God through His Son Jesus Christ the Door to the Fathers House (Heart)! Jesus is not only the Door to the Fathers House, He’s the Key that opens the Door! Jesus would have us to know the Fathers Love even as the Father loves His Son. The Son of God is not selfish and longs to share His Heavenly Father with whosoever wills! If that’s not Love then tell me what is.


  2. priyanka says:

    I knew very little abt songs of Solomon but now hv known something new. Thanks


  3. The other interpretation pictures a love triangle between the beloved women, her beloved shepherd Jesus, and the perverted Solomon king the devil appealing to her, ( how ironic of the Judiazers today) and the false religious (worldly) women giving bad advice.. is the one most likely.. fits the passages well..


  4. Many years have been passed , still we did not get a clear understanding about
    song of songs .
    Although we know the poem has been written by one wise person, we get a wise
    standard . perhaps still i am unfaithful to get the knowledge .


    • mani says:

      The songs Solomon is probably a prophesy. The descriptions are about complete health of men and women! These things also correlate with many scientific facts


  5. Many people are being misled by pagans in the church. Here is how the bible very clearly shows on its own what the Song of Solomon is all about.


  6. Danile says:

    Song of Soiomon is love that God has for the Christ in us all if you look a threw the eyes of the Spirit the Bible is story about the love of God has for the bride of Christ which we are and Jesus Christ is the husband.
    Love in Christ Daniel


  7. Garry S. says:

    King David was a shepherd most of his younger life. Surely he would have told his son many good shepherd stories and lessons. It would not seem hard to believe that Solomon would have had a flock of sheep that were kept for him so that he could leave the palace at times and walk in the hills with his sheep (like his father once did). And that at some point in time he met a beautiful girl who captured his interests. And she herself became smitten too, but what would seem different about this story (if it’s read this way), is that she was not in love with Solomon the King, but rather Solomon the shepherd only.

    If that was true it surely would have intrigued Solomon because most girls would have gladly given up their former life to go live in the palace, but this one wasn’t interested and seems only in love with the shepherd. And Solomon had to provide for her in that way


    • That is an Insightful comment and worthy of consideration. With the shepherd interpreted as Solomon, the message is still the same and just as beautiful. Thank you. You given me something more to rethink.


  8. Freda says:

    I always pass this book of solomon because i did not understand! -The Old testament-He had wisdom because he ask GOD! In order for I as women and he allowed solomon !Where is the comunication between my self and God to allow in the New testament!- i still dont understand parelle in the new generation? are they seeking to communicate and I Know who I GOD is!


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