Are Christian women neglecting the command for head-coverings in church? Many believe that 1 Corinthians 11 teaches that women must wear garment head-coverings when practicing their faith around men. The interpretations of this passage vary concerning whether the covering is spiritual, garment, or hair. Some consider this section of Scripture as completely cultural and identify all parts as the custom of contention (1 Cor 11:16). However, that position cannot avoid that the Apostle commanded that Christians must maintain traditions just as delivered to them (1 Cor 11:2). Does the Apostle mean that head-coverings are a part of maintaining traditions from God? This article provides Scriptures for the reader to better understand this passage within its content. May God bless your study.
The believer must consider the following points in their honest study:
- If God commanded the observance of head-coverings as a man-made custom, then God commanded the tradition of observing customs that appropriately display the faith. This is true, because the context addresses customs that appropriately display the faith (1 Cor 8:7–13; 10:23–33). Therefore, 1 Corinthians 11 teaches the observance customs that demonstrate honor and respect as God has established His headship.
- If God established women’s head-coverings as a garment covering, then God established no other covering for women. However, God did establish a covering of hair for women according to 1 Corinthians 11:15. Therefore, God did not establish women’s head-coverings as a garment covering.
- If God established the headship of man as the spiritual covering of woman, then God established the headship of Christ as the spiritual covering of man. However, God commanded man to not cover his head when the head of man is Christ according to 1 Corinthians 11:4 and 7. Therefore, God did not establish the headship of man as the spiritual covering of woman.
- If a woman’s covering of long hair is a man-made custom, then God did not give woman long hair as a glory and covering. However, God did give woman long hair as a glory and covering “if a woman has long hair” according to 1 Corinthians 11:15. Therefore, a woman’s covering of long hair is not a man-made custom.
More about the Covering and Long Hair
Notice that hair is the only covering mentioned in 1 Corinthians 11. The text says, “But if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering” (1 Cor 11:15). The covering of hair is the glory of woman. A woman’s long hair is a glory given to her by God, and “woman is the glory of man” because man is the “glory of God” (1 Cor 11:7). Each gender has a separate glory. The covering of hair is God-given and this is not the custom of contention mentioned in verse 16. If a woman lacked her God-given covering of long hair, then the only other covering may include a garment like a shawl that hangs down.
These Scriptures use the Greek word katakalupto, which literally means “to cover downward” as noted below and in Strong’s and Thayer’s lexicons. By a woman’s head being uncovered, this was the same as having her hair cropped or shaved (1 Cor 11:5–6). As other Scriptures explain, the woman who elaborately arranges her hair covers her head and disregards her God-given glory and God’s headship. With long hair being the glory of women who have long hair, the Scripture teaches that the Christian woman should let her hair down in subordination to God’s order of headship and thereby glorify God, Christ, and man (1 Cor 11:3–6).
The woman who washed Jesus’s feet demonstrated how a woman letting her hair down was an act of humility (Luke 7:36–50). Likewise, the women who witnessed the resurrected Christ took Jesus’s feet and worshiped Him (Matt 28:9). Lazarus’s sister, Mary, demonstrated humility by wiping Jesus’s feet with hair and anointing Him with oil in preparation for His burial (John 12:1–8). Charles Cosgrove cited numerous ancient sources depicting how women let their hair down as an act of humility within the Greco-Roman and Jewish societies (Cosgrove, A Woman’s Unbound Hair, JBL 124 (2005):675–692).
In 1 Peter 3:1–6, Peter also applied the decorating of hair as a wife’s insubordination to her husband. First Peter 3:3–4 explains, “Your adornment must not be merely external —braiding the hair, and wearing gold jewelry, or putting on dresses; but let it be the hidden person of the heart, with the imperishable quality of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is precious in the sight of God” (NASB). Considering 1 Peter 3 and 1 Timothy 2, the Apostle is instructing modesty and humility among women in 1 Corinthians 11.
God instructed the Christian women in 1 Timothy 2:9–15, “Likewise, I want women to adorn themselves with proper clothing, modestly and discreetly, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly garments, but rather by means of good works, as is proper for women making a claim to godliness.” The Apostle described braided hair as immodest, insubordinate, and not proper for a woman’s claim to godliness. By not letting their hair hang down, women dishonored God’s headship, which includes that man is head of woman. By elaborately braiding and adorning hair with gold and pearls, women behaved or appeared as exercising authority over men, and thus rejecting the man’s right to lead and teach as God set men to do because God created him first (1 Tim 2:13–14).
While culture is not an interpreter of Scripture, note that the pagan custom was for powerful women of authority to dress as though higher than others. Women in this time led worship to Diana and Dionysus, and thus women exercised power (Bruce Morton, “Deceiving Winds,” Nashville: 21st Century Christian, 2009). Apparently among the congregations, some women arranged and adorned their hair with gold and pearls, and they did not let their long hair hang down showing the God-given glory of woman and the glory of man in woman (1 Cor 11:15). The Spirit of Christ taught through the Apostles that a woman’s hair was to hang down in such a way that is modest and glorified herself, man, and God’s headship.
If someone is contentious about such “custom,” the apostle Paul affirmed that the churches of God have no other “custom.” What is that custom? First Corinthians 11:13 proposes a rhetorical question, “Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered?” Remember that the covering of the head is the hair that hangs downward. The translators interpret “proper” from the Greek word prepo meaning “becoming,” “appropriate,” or “fitting” as 1 Timothy 2:10 uses the word (cf. Matt 3:15; Eph 5:3; Titus 2:1; Heb 2:10; 7:26). First Timothy 2:10 states that women adorn themselves with good works “as is proper for women making a claim to godliness.” Are good works cultural or divine instruction? Likewise, women praying with their head uncovered was not proper. However, if a woman has long hair, her hair is a glory and a covering given to her by God.
Furthermore, consider the commentary of James B. Coffman who explained a woman’s hair as her covering:
Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoreth his head.
Having his head covered…
Here is where the misunderstanding of this passage begins. This clause, as rendered in the popular versions, is commentary, not Bible. As Echols noted:
“Having his head covered” is a commentary, not a translation. Lenski translated the sense correctly: “having something down from his head.” What the “something” is is neither stated nor implied in 1 Corinthians 11:4.
The logical understanding of this would refer it to “long hair,” being long enough to hang down from the head, as clearly indicated by the apostles’ words a moment later: “If a man have long hair, it is a dishonor to him” (1 Corinthians 11:14).
The ancients accepted Paul’s dictum on this and went so far as to define the length of hair that was considered an infraction of Paul’s words.
“The hair of the head may not grow so long as to come down and interfere with the eyes … cropping is to be adopted … let not twisted locks hang far down from the head, gliding into womanish ringlets.”
Significantly, the words “hang far down” strongly resemble Paul’s words “having something down from his head.” The above is from Clement of Alexandria and was written in the second century.
The notion that Paul in this place referred to the [Hebrew: tallith] (shawl), or [Greek: yarmelke] (skull cap) worn by Jewish worshipers is refuted by the fact that the Greek New Testament does not indicate in this verse an artificial covering of any kind. This does not mean, however, that Paul would have approved of the use of either in Christian worship. “For Paul such a covering probably symbolized that the Jewish male continued in spiritual darkness, from which Christians had been liberated.” We may therefore interpret this verse as a simple admonition that it was a disgrace for any long-haired Christian male to participate in praying and prophesying; and this interpretation certainly harmonizes with verse 14. History has certainly vindicated this view; because universal human behavior has departed from it only in isolated instances and for relatively very short periods of time. (emp. added)
Referring to coverings in verse 5, Coffman wrote,
With her head unveiled…
The word here rendered ‘unveiled’ is [Greek: akatakaluptos]. “There is no intrinsic meaning in this word which suggests either the covering material or the object covered; it is simply a general word.” (See under 1 Corinthians 11:15.) Only in 1 Cor. 11:15 does Paul mention any kind of garment ([Greek: peribolaion]) and even there he stated that the woman’s hair took the place of it. [Katakaluptos] means covered completely. [Akatakaluptos] means not completely covered. Thus again, the passage falls short of mentioning any kind of garment. To suppose that Paul here meant “mantle” or “veil” or any such thing is to import into this text what is not in it. We have seen that he was speaking of “hair” in 1 Cor. 11:4; and that is exactly what he is speaking of here. “Not completely covered” would then refer to the disgraceful conduct of the Corinthian women in cropping their hair, after the manner of the notorious Corinthian prostitutes; which, if they did it, was exactly the same kind of disgrace as if they had shaved their heads. It is crystal clear that Paul is not speaking of any kind of garment; because he said in 1 Cor. 11:15, below, “For her hair is given her instead of a covering.” (emp. added)
David Lipscomb addressed this very subject saying,
I understand that long hair serves as a veil or token of her subjection to authority; and if she has not long hair, she must cover her head when she approaches God in worship. I understand this to refer to her approach to God in private or in public assembly when others lead in worship. Many interpret this to mean that she is to do these things when she leads in public worship, but the Scripture says nothing of this. (Q & A, emp. added)
Within this previous context of hair as the “covering,” Lipscomb concluded this statement, “We understand verse 16 to say that the churches of God have no such custom as the women appearing in worship with uncovered or shorn heads.” The expectation was for women to have hanging hair to show honor to God, man to Christ, and woman to man.
However, some may ask about verses 5–6. These verses seem to imply that not covering with a garment is like a woman’s hair being sheared or shaved. Paul is simply affirming that short hair and hair drawn up on the head is the same as a cropped or shaved head. A literal translation is:
Every woman praying or prophesying with head uncovered disgraces her head; for this is also one and the same as being shaved. For if the woman is not covered, let her also become sheared; and if the disgrace to the woman is to become sheared or shaved, let her remain covered. (1 Cor 11:5–6)
If Paul meant “hair,” why did he use the word “covered”? The answer is that in the vocabulary of the Old Testament “to uncover the head” was to shave off the hair. When Nadab and Abihu sinned (Leviticus 10:1ff), God commanded Aaron not to “uncover his head” in mourning at their death; and this meant not to cut off his hair (the customary sign of mourning). Job shaved his head when he learned his children were dead (Job 1:20). Many examples of this usage could be cited. (emp. added)
“If it is a shame to a woman to be cropped or shaven, let her be covered” clearly refers to a covering of hair as seen in 1 Corinthians 11:15, “And if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her; for her long hair is given to her for a covering.“
What about verse 10’s reference to angels saying, “because of the angels“? Verse 10 is referring to authority. This scripture shows how women should have authority on her head. The woman, who prophesies, receives revelation from God through angels to prophesy (Heb 2:2; Rev 1:1) and the woman has her prayers delivered by angels (Rev 8:3–4). This instruction has to do with the woman’s service in prayer and teaching before God. She is to serve with apparent respect and modesty. Therefore, “every woman praying or prophesying with her head uncovered dishonors her head” (1 Cor 11:5).
By not covering her head, the Christian woman dishonors herself being that God created her as the glory of man and in the image of God. Remember verse 3, “But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.” The woman is subordinating to the man by her modesty and covering. Her hair hanging down is her glory for she is the glory of man. This is how the Christian woman honors the headship of God, Christ, and man.